More about dendritic spines

There is a good posting at CellularScale (here) where they look at a Nature paper by Fu and others, Repetitive motor learning induces coordinated formation of clustered dendritic spines in vivo. It is an interesting posting; have a read.

Here is the abstract from the original paper:

Many lines of evidence suggest that memory in the mammalian brain is stored with distinct spatiotemporal patterns. Despite recent progresses in identifying neuronal populations involved in memory coding, the synapse-level mechanism is still poorly understood. Computational models and electrophysiological data have shown that functional clustering of synapses along dendritic branches leads to nonlinear summation of synaptic inputs and greatly expands the computing power of a neural network. However, whether neighbouring synapses are involved in encoding similar memory and how task-specific cortical networks develop during learning remain elusive. Using transcranial two-photon microscopy, we followed apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the motor cortex while mice practised novel forelimb skills. Here we show that a third of new dendritic spines (postsynaptic structures of most excitatory synapses) formed during the acquisition phase of learning emerge in clusters, and that most such clusters are neighbouring spine pairs. These clustered new spines are more likely to persist throughout prolonged learning sessions, and even long after training stops, than non-clustered counterparts. Moreover, formation of new spine clusters requires repetition of the same motor task, and the emergence of succedent new spine(s) accompanies the strengthening of the first new spine in the cluster. We also show that under control conditions new spines appear to avoid existing stable spines, rather than being uniformly added along dendrites. However, succedent new spines in clusters overcome such a spatial constraint and form in close vicinity to neighbouring stable spines. Our findings suggest that clustering of new synapses along dendrites is induced by repetitive activation of the cortical circuitry during learning, providing a structural basis for spatial coding of motor memory in the mammalian brain.

The ‘take home’ from the blog is this:

The authors explain two possible functions for these spine clusters:

“Positioning multiple synapses between a pair of neurons in close proximity allows nonlinear summation of synaptic strength, and potentially increases the dynamic range of synaptic transmission well beyond what can be achieved by random positioning of the same number of synapses.”

Meaning spines that are clustered and receive inputs from the same neuron have more power to influence the cell than spines further apart.

“Alternatively, clustered new spines may synapse with distinct (but presumably functionally related) presynaptic partners. In this case, they could potentially integrate inputs from different neurons nonlinearly and increase the circuitÂ’s computational power. “

Meaning that maybe the spines don’t receive input from the same neuron, but are clustered so they can integrate signals across neurons more powerfully.

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